Different areas covered under Pathology are :Hematology, Serology, Clinical Biochemistry, Clinical Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Histopathology & Cytology.
ACID FAST BACILLI (AFB) SMEARA screening test for tuberculosis (TB). Usually done when cough is present for a long time with or without fever. Needs confirmation with AFB culture or PCR. Can be seen in any body fluids.
ALPHA FETO PROTEIN(AFP)Can be seen is pregnant mother to look for fetal abnormalities. It can be also used as a screening for tumors like liver cancer, germ cell tumors and yolk sac tumors. Can be seen in blood.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (ALP)A protein found in liver, gall bladder and bone. It can be high in children and pregnant women. It can be increased in liver, bile or bone pathology. Can be seen in blood.
ANTI MULLERIAN HORMONEA hormone from granulose cells in ovary. It gives information on ovarian eggs. Usually seen in women for pregnancy and rarely in men for mullerian duct syndrome. Can be seen in blood.
AMYLASEA enzyme used for digestion of food particles. Usually increased in salivary or pancreatic disease. It can also be increased in secondary pathology to various diseases. Can be seen in blood.
ANTI-CYCLIN CITRULLINATED PEPTIDE (A-CCP)Used when a patient has multiple joint pain. Most commonly females are affected. More useful than rheumatoid factor. It is usually increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Can be seen in blood.
ANTI THYROID ANTIBODY (ANTI-TPO)Test done when patient has tiredness or swelling in front of neck (thyroid). Most common in young women. Also called as Anti Microsomal Antibody (AMA). It is done with thyroid profile. Values are increased in thyroiditis. Can be seen in blood.
ANTI STREPHTOLYSIN-O (ASO)Usually affects young male or female can follow throat infection, followed by multiple joint pain. Infection caused by bacteria called streptococcai. If untreated can cause kidney/ heart disease. Can be seen in blood.
Bilirubin (Total, Direct & Indirect)AFB smear test is done if you have symptoms, such as a chronic cough, weight loss, fever, chills, and weakness that may be due to tuberculosis.
Bleeding Time (BT)/Clotting Time (CT)AFP is a protein produced by fetal tissue (especially the liver) and by tumors. Increased amounts of AFP are found in vast majority of patients with a type of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma. They are also found in some patients with cancer of the testes and ovaries.
Blood Culture & SensitivityAlkaline phosphatase is principally measured to evaluate diseases of liver or bone. ALP levels vary with age and pregnancy. ALP is elevated in growing children, decrease to an adult level, and then increase slightly in older people. During pregnancy ALP values elevate to two times normal level, rise to three times the normal level during labor and return to normal in three to four weeks.
BILIRUBINJaundice is the most common of all liver problems. The yellow color of the skin and mucous membranes happens because of an increase in the bile pigment. Bilirubin in the blood.
Caused by a blockage in the pathway where bilirubin is made in the liver cells and where bile goes into the duodenum.
Caused by damage to liver cells the damage could be from a viral infection or toxic drugs.
CA 19-9AFB smear test is done if you have symptoms, such as a chronic cough, weight loss, fever, chills, and weakness that may be due to tuberculosis.
CA-125AFP is a protein produced by fetal tissue (especially the liver) and by tumors. Increased amounts of AFP are found in vast majority of patients with a type of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma. They are also found in some patients with cancer of the testes and ovaries.
CalciumAlkaline phosphatase is principally measured to evaluate diseases of liver or bone. ALP levels vary with age and pregnancy. ALP is elevated in growing children, decrease to an adult level, and then increase slightly in older people. During pregnancy ALP values elevate to two times normal level, rise to three times the normal level during labor and return to normal in three to four weeks.
DIFFERENTIAL COUNTA differential count as the name implies involves a random scan of microscopic slide with identification of each type of leukocyte as it is encountered in the microscopic field. Each leukocyte type is recorded and a random count of 100 cells performed normally numbers of each type of leukocyte will fall with in typical ranges. Abnormally high or low counts or abnormal cells indicate pathologies.
D-DIMERThe D-Dimer is a fragment of fibrin that contains one intermolecular cross link between the gamma chains of two fibrin monomers. This cross linkage takes place specifically in fibrin (and not in fibrinogen). Increased levels of D- dimer (cross linked fibrin fragments) have been found in patients with deep vein thrombosis, acute pulmonary embolism, unstable angina, disseminated intravascular coagulation and myocardial infarction.
DIGOXINDigoxin is a cardiacglycoside. It restores the force of cardiac contraction in congestive heart failure. Serum digoxin determinations are important not only in the assessment of the appropriate dose to prescribe.
DENGUEDengue hemorrhage fever and dengue shock syndrome are caused by infection of RNA flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito vector. This test differentiate between primary and secondary infection. Paired acute and convalescent specimens that exhibit a significant change in titer are useful to confirm clinical diagnosis of infection.
DHEADehydroepiandroesterne (DHEA) is a hormone produced by both men and women its released by the adrenal glands and it contributes to male traits. The adrenal glands are small, triangular shaped. Glands located above the kidneys. This test is used see reserve ovarian oocyte.
DOUBLE MARKERThe double marker test is one of the many pregnancy test. A pregnant and women has to undergo between 9 to 13 weeks of pregnancy. Two marks namely free Beta HCG (Human Chronic gonadotrophin) and PAPP-A (Pregnancy associated plasma protein) AFP – Alpha Feto Protein. A useful marker to determine early fetal abnormality.
URIC ACIDA chemical created when body breaks down a substance called purines. They are seen more in red meat, green vegetables like spinach, mushrooms and alcohols like beer. So a too much on non vegetarian or vegetarian can be a problem. Patients usually have pain in small joints. A fasting blood sample is recommended.
URINE PREGNANCY TESTWhen a women is pregnant a hormone is formed in placenta and it is a called a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This hormone as a screening can be seen in urine in a pregnant women. A random urine is recommened. A blood sample is more accurate than a urine sample. You can contact our doctor for any questions.
URINE COMPLETE EXAMINATIONA excellent screening test to look for pathology in kidney, bladder and its tubes. This test will give information also in sugar,Ph, nitrate and blood. A random sample of 5ml urine will be useful. For a women a PAP test and for a adult male serum PSA with this test give more information.
URINE CULTURE AND SENSITIVITYThis test is done to look for bacterial organisms in upper or lower urinary tract. Patients usually have complains of burning sensation when passing urine. Children, bed ridden and women are more prone for urinary infection. A early morning first mid stream urine will be useful. For children a special collection bag can be ask to lab.
VITAMIN B 12A vital vitamin also called cobalamin. Plays a very important role in DNA synthesis and nervous system. This vitamin is present in animal products like meat, fish, milk and fortified breakfast cereals. Very much important to pregnant women. Patient usually present with tiredness and abdominal pain. A random blood sample will be collected.
VITAMIN DA very important vitamin given by nature and ignored by humans. The maximum sources is from morning sun light. Important in bone formation. Patients usually present with tiredness and unexplained bone and muscle pain. This vitamin is important in all ages. A random blood sample will be collected.
VDRLThe venereal disease research laboratory test, done in patients for screening with a bacteria infection, Treponema palladium. Patients at risk sexually active people. Patients usually present with genital or oral ulcers. TPHMA is more of a confirmatory test. A random blood sample will be collected.
WARM AUTOANTIBODY TESTA autoimmune disorder where the red blood cells are eaten by our own cells. Normally red blood cells live for 120 days but here they can come low as 30 days. Patient will have tiredness and many have yellow coloured skin. A random sample will be collected. Patient should come to lab as all the required materials will be at 37 degrees.
WEIL FELIX TESTA screening test for Rickettsia, a bacterial disease which causes enteric fever or typhoid fever, but useful only after six days of fever. Patient usually present with high fever and tiredness. A blood culture and ELISA along with this will give more informations.
WESTERN BLOT (HIV)A confirmatory test for HIV infection. Patients with early HIV can have a negative test. Multiple proteins are seen. Patients usually present will tiredness, weakness and fever no responding to drugs. A random sample of blood will be taken. A doctor consultation along with this test will be very useful.
WBC COUNTA test done to see the total number of white cells in once blood. A random blood sample will be taken. It can be high or low in infectious disease. A markedly increases and reduced value can also be seen in blood cancers. This a excellent screening test.